Updated: Feb. 7, 2019
1. The graph above breaks down how we consumed music in 2018 by genre. How do traditional sales (defined as sales and radio play) compare to traditional sales combined with streaming? The chart below provides additional relevant information. Both originally appeared elsewhere on NYTimes.com.
After looking closely at the graph and chart above, think about these three questions:
• What do you notice?• What do you wonder?What are you curious about that comes from what you notice in the graphs?• What might be going on in this graph?Write a catchy headline that captures the graph’s main idea. If your headline makes a claim, tell us what you noticed that supports your claim.
The questions are intended to build on one another, so try to answer them in order. Start with “I notice,” then “I wonder,” and end with “The story this graph is telling is ….” and a catchy headline.
2. Next, join the conversation by clicking on the comment button and posting in the box that opens on the right. (Students 13 and older are invited to comment. Teachers of younger students are welcome to post what their students have to say, or they can have their students use this same activity on Desmos.)
3. After you have posted, read what others have said, then respond to someone else by posting a comment. Use the “Reply” button or the @ symbol to address that student directly.
On Wednesday, Feb. 6, our collaborator, the American Statistical Association, will facilitate this discussion from 9 a.m. to 2 p.m. Eastern Time to help students’ understanding go deeper. You might use their responses as models for your own.
4. On the afternoon of Thursday, Feb. 7, we will reveal more information about the graph at the bottom of this post. Students, we encourage you to post an additional comment after reading the reveal. How do the original New York Times article and the moderators’ comments help you see the graph differently? Try to incorporate the statistical terms defined in the Stat Nuggets in your response.
• Read our introductory post, which includes information about using the “Notice and Wonder” teaching strategy.• Learn about how and why other teachers are using this feature, and use the 2018-19 “What’s Going On in This Graph?” calendar to plan ahead for the 25 Wednesday releases. • Go to the A.S.A. K-12 website, which includes This is Statistics, resources, professional development, student competitions, curriculum, courses and careers.
Updated: Feb. 7, 2019
The New York Times article “How a New Kind of Pop Star Stormed 2018” pronounced that peppy pop music that attracts large audiences has been left behind as a mere “niche proposition in the wider conversation.” Now, there is Pop 2.0, powered by the internet’s streaming, both paid and free. Drake, Post Malone, Cardi B, and BTS blow the top off the Billboard charts with R&B, hip-hop, reggaeton and K-pop.
Since CD sales and paid downloads have been declining for about 20 years, Billboard, which produces the top music lists using Nielsen data, has incorporated digital streams into its statistics. The number of streams is converted into equivalent album units (EAU). Here are the current conversion ratios: 1 album = 1,250 paid streams (such as Apple Music and Spotify) = 3,750 free streams (such as YouTube or Spotify’s free tier). The ratios reflect the relative value of the different ways music is consumed.
The two segmented bar graphs reflect CD sales only and CD sales with EAU. Has streaming changed how we rank music genres? Has Billboard found a system that results in an accurate description of the music scene?
Many of you gave hypotheses about why music consumption has changed. Here are some of your reasons: change in the age distribution of listeners, Bluetooth supplanting disc players, decrease in influence of radio play, some music not available in stores, and obscenity laced lyrics that cannot be on the airwaves. Olivia of AOSE described a chain of effects:
I notice that R&B music consumption is at 54% for streaming, while only at 20% for traditional sales. Modern rappers are taking advantage of this new outlet and increasing their audience. I wonder if my music taste has assimilated to the culture, and if I am doing Carrie Underwood and Lady Gaga, for example, a disservice by no longer purchasing their music. Is streaming helping the consumer, but hurting the artist? Or is streaming also curbing personal music research?
Here are some of the student headlines that really capture the meaning of these graphs: “Traditional Sales Heading Down Stream ” by Matthew of the Bronx, N.Y., “Dream Team Is the Stream Team” by BM from MA, and “The Rock of Ages: How Younger Audiences Listen to Music Now” by Angela of Nevada. Thank you for sharing them with us.
You may want to think critically about these additional questions:
• Which music genres have benefited the most from streaming? Why do you think this is so?
• In your opinion, which method of calculating the top Billboard lists better reflects the ranking of albums’ popularity: with or without streaming included?
• If a Gold Album is 1,000,000 albums sold, make a graph showing the combinations of paid and free streams to earn a Gold Album. (For simplicity here, assume there are no album sales.) Using the equivalent album units (EAU) described above, make a table of a few of the combinations of paid and free streaming that equal 1,000,000 albums. Then, graph them and draw in the boundary for exactly 1,000,000 EAU. Since there needs to be at least 1,000,000 EAU, but there can be more, should the combinations above or below the line be included to show the region for a Gold Album? Once you have the graph, what do you notice about the relationship between paid and free streams?
• Explain what you think is the best indicator of a pop star’s success — CD sales, track downloads, paid streams, or free streams?
Curious about how people consume their music? Or, which music genre they like the most? Try this: ■ Write a survey question asking either how music is consumed (CD, track downloads, paid streams, or free streams) or which genre is preferred (R&B/Hip-Hop, Pop, Rock, Country, or Other). ■ Survey two subgroups of music consumers, possibly classmates from two different grades or neighborhoods, students and adults, or any other pairing.■ Conduct the survey, preferably confidentially by giving your responders slips of paper with the questions.■ Tally the results and make two segmented bar graphs of the same size, one for each subgroup. Put the categories of responses in the same order and make sure they add to 100 percent.■ Compare the responses from the two subgroups. Based on giving the survey and the results from the segmented bar graphs, present what you notice and what you now wonder. How do your results compare to the New York Times graphs and what is said in the article?
Below in the Stat Nuggets, we define and explain mathematical terms that apply to these graphs. Look into the archives to see past Stat Nuggets.
Thank you for participating in “What’s Going On in This Graph?”, which is intended to help you think more critically about graphs and the underlying data. Critical thinking is an essential element of statistics, the science of learning from data. Data visualizations, like these graphs, are an important part of statistics. They help us to understand and learn from data.
Keep noticing and wondering. We continue to welcome your responses.
Join us Wednesday, Feb. 13 to notice and wonder about military budgets around the world. We look forward to your responses between 9 a.m. - 2 p.m. Eastern Time during the live online moderation.
Stat Nuggets for “How a New Kind of Pop Star Stormed 2018”
SEGMENTED BAR GRAPH
A segmented bar graph is a graph of data on a categorical variable. It allows for easy visual comparisons of the relative sizes of two or more subgroups of the categorical variable. The entire bar represents 100 percent of the data. The subgroups are shown as segments of the bar that are proportionate to their percentage of the data. When segmented bar graphs are used to compare two or more groups, the bars are lined up adjacent to each other with the subcategories in the same order in each bar.
In the Pop Music graphs, the bar is 100 percent of music consumption for either traditional sales (sales and radio play) or sales plus streaming. This consumption is subdivided into music genres plus an “other” category. We can easily see that rock is the most popular genre from traditional sales, but R&B/hip-hop far surpasses rock when streaming is included.
The graphs for “What’s Going On in This Graph?” are selected in partnership with Sharon Hessney. Ms. Hessney wrote the “reveal” and Stat Nuggets with Roxy Peck, a professor emerita at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo, and moderated online with Bill Gottschalk, a mathematics teacher at Collinsville High School in Illinois.B:
东方心经一官方网【没】【有】【理】【会】【发】【型】【师】【给】【她】【介】【绍】【的】【最】【近】【流】【行】【的】【发】【色】。 “【给】【我】【把】【烫】【染】【过】【的】【头】【发】【都】【剪】【了】【吧】，【怎】【么】【剪】，【你】【看】【着】【办】。” 【见】【顾】【非】【非】【坚】【持】【己】【见】，【发】【型】【师】【只】【能】【卡】【擦】【卡】【擦】【动】【剪】【刀】。 【经】【过】【洗】【剪】【吹】，【顾】【非】【非】【看】【到】【最】【后】【的】【成】【品】，【怎】【么】【说】【呢】，【真】【是】【久】【违】【了】。 【自】【她】【有】【了】【对】【自】【己】【头】【发】【的】【自】【主】【权】，【就】【没】【有】【留】【过】【黑】【发】。 【头】【发】【到】【锁】【骨】【的】【位】【置】，【额】
【李】【若】【初】【自】【李】【锦】【的】【书】【房】【出】【来】【之】【后】，【便】【径】【直】【回】【了】【溯】【洄】【阁】【等】【消】【息】。 【夜】【色】【已】【深】，【四】【月】【已】【经】【添】【了】【好】【几】【回】【炭】【了】，【李】【若】【初】【却】【丝】【毫】【没】【有】【睡】【意】。 【一】【旁】【的】【四】【月】【靠】【在】【椅】【子】【上】【哈】【欠】【连】【天】，【李】【若】【初】【催】【她】【去】【睡】，【可】【四】【月】【却】【说】【什】【么】【也】【不】【肯】。 【小】【姐】【都】【没】【睡】，【她】【这】【个】【做】【下】【人】【的】【哪】【里】【能】【比】【小】【姐】【先】【睡】。 【李】【若】【初】【催】【了】【两】【回】，【可】【拗】【不】【过】【四】【月】【的】【坚】【持】，【便】
【她】【一】【个】【年】【纪】【轻】【轻】【的】【姑】【娘】【家】，【竟】【然】【敢】【一】【个】【人】【待】【在】【这】【杭】【州】【府】，【也】【是】【没】【有】【半】【点】【闺】【秀】【之】【态】，【端】【的】【是】【轻】【薄】。” 【杭】【烈】【于】【她】【娘】【的】【心】【思】【那】【是】【非】【常】【的】【好】【猜】，【微】【微】【一】【笑】，“【娘】，【当】【真】【那】【袁】【五】【娘】【长】【得】【好】？” 【陈】【氏】【嗔】【怪】【地】【看】【向】【他】，“【比】【那】【季】【元】【娘】【的】【颜】【色】【还】【要】【好】【些】，【她】【娘】【何】【氏】【乃】【是】【当】【年】【的】【江】【南】【首】【富】【之】【女】。” 【杭】【烈】【抬】【眼】【看】【向】【陈】【氏】，“【那】【必】【是】
【因】【为】【向】【喃】【的】【离】【开】，【赤】【水】【忍】【了】【好】【久】【的】【委】【屈】【终】【于】【爆】【发】【了】【出】【来】。【它】【对】【向】【喃】【的】【思】【念】【似】【乎】【成】【了】【潮】【水】，【汹】【涌】【且】【澎】【湃】【地】【朝】【着】【向】【喃】【涌】【去】。 【曾】【经】【只】【能】【在】【客】【栈】【里】【头】【打】【着】【转】，【寻】【找】【着】【向】【喃】【曾】【经】【地】【影】【子】【与】【气】【息】，【睹】【物】【思】【人】，【如】【今】【终】【于】【见】【到】【了】【心】【心】【念】【念】【的】【主】【人】，【赤】【水】【势】【必】【要】【将】【之】【前】【的】【那】【些】【想】【念】【给】【一】【一】【补】【回】【来】【的】。 【向】【喃】【唯】【一】【没】【有】【拒】【绝】【的】【就】【是】【赤】【水】东方心经一官方网【狡】【猾】【天】【狗】【见】【橡】【实】【果】【被】【抓】【出】【来】【后】，【挣】【扎】【的】【更】【加】【激】【烈】【了】，【可】【惜】【它】【遇】【到】【了】【臭】【臭】【泥】，【愣】【是】【翻】【不】【起】【任】【何】【的】【浪】【花】。 【不】【过】【兰】【方】【还】【是】【象】【征】【性】【的】【给】【了】【它】【点】【面】【子】，【一】【把】【拉】【开】【喵】【喵】【道】：“【好】【了】，【别】【生】【气】【了】，【我】【问】【这】【橡】【实】【果】【一】【点】【东】【西】，【你】【帮】【我】【翻】【译】【翻】【译】。” 【喵】【喵】【不】【开】【心】【的】【小】【心】【嘀】【咕】【了】【几】【句】，【老】【老】【实】【实】【退】【到】【了】【一】【旁】，【波】【克】【比】【从】【布】【兜】【里】【窜】【出】【脑】【袋】
“【这】…” 【马】【东】【东】【刚】【想】【继】【续】【问】【问】【题】，【就】【被】【屠】【卡】【一】【把】【捂】【住】【了】【嘴】【巴】。 【大】【家】【紧】【张】【的】【在】【原】【地】【保】【持】【警】【惕】，【崔】【宇】【则】【缓】【缓】【催】【动】【契】【约】【咒】。 【小】【花】【在】【他】【去】【废】【墟】【前】【就】【被】【派】【去】【探】【路】【了】，【让】【他】【费】【解】【的】【是】，【小】【刺】【猬】【居】【然】【屁】【颠】【屁】【颠】【的】【也】【跟】【着】【去】【了】。 【不】【过】【崔】【宇】【想】【也】【好】【让】【它】【们】【做】【个】【伴】。 【小】【花】【探】【路】【有】【得】【天】【独】【厚】【的】【优】【势】，【如】【果】【遇】【到】【危】【险】，【他】【可】【以】
【王】【兽】【心】【脏】【碎】【成】【七】【小】【块】，【被】【李】【安】【心】【吞】【入】【腹】【中】，【碎】【片】【刚】【刚】【入】【腹】，【就】【有】【一】【块】【被】【他】【消】【化】，【化】【作】【滂】【沱】【能】【量】【注】【入】【四】【肢】【百】【骸】【中】，【再】【反】【馈】【回】【内】【在】【黑】【球】。 【能】【量】【源】【源】【不】【断】【注】【入】【他】【左】【胸】【的】【伤】【口】，【修】【复】【能】【力】【全】【速】【运】【作】，【终】【于】【将】【伤】【口】【强】【行】【愈】【合】，【但】【新】【生】【的】【皮】【肤】【居】【然】【是】【灰】【黑】【色】【的】，【看】【起】【来】【不】【像】【是】【正】【常】【人】【的】【皮】【肤】，【更】【像】【是】【一】【块】【死】【肉】。 “【相】【当】【强】【烈】【的】
“【你】【们】【都】【下】【去】【忙】【吧】，【早】【点】【歇】【着】，【明】【日】【一】【早】……【还】【要】【搬】【家】。” 【打】【发】【走】【了】【身】【边】【人】【只】【剩】【下】【宋】【云】【瑶】【和】**【霆】【了】，【宋】【云】【瑶】【还】【是】【觉】【得】【没】【办】【法】【顺】【利】【说】【出】【口】，【沉】【默】【了】【一】【会】【儿】【干】【脆】【拉】【着】**【霆】【起】【身】【进】【了】【主】【屋】。 “【你】【在】【找】【什】【么】？”**【霆】【一】【头】【雾】【水】【的】【问】。 【宋】【云】【瑶】【从】【柜】【子】【里】【拿】【出】【一】【只】【瓷】【瓶】，【一】【脸】【不】【好】【意】【思】【看】【着】**【霆】。 “【这】【是】【我】